by Clelia Kruel
I just finished reading the book, El Gran Libro del Fila Brasilero by Ms. Inés van Damme (Tikal Ediciones, Madrid, 2000, soft back, 407 pages). The title seemed familiar to me as Professor Procópio do Valle and Mr. Enio Monte had already published a book about the Fila Brasileiro back in 1981 (Editora Nobel) with exactly the same title in Portuguese, O Grande Livro do Fila Brasileiro.
I enjoyed some of the stories and pictures, but I failed to understand why it should be considered an informative book as it tried to wash one's brain by constant repetitions against the black and dark brindle colors in the breed. It was not a source of sound information. Some chapters about European kennels are valuable for people interested in the expansion of the Fila Brasileiro in Europe, though it is tainted by this constant obsession of the author bashing kennels which do not follow the Cafib standard.
The author keeps repeating, like a broken record, that true, authentic Filas, exist only in Spain and in some kennels of Minas Gerais. In addition, she states that 80% of the Brazilian Filas are mongrels. But, never does she show any proof or evidence of those facts, nor does she explain how the miracle of keeping some "pure, authentic Cafib Filas" happened. She also keeps repeating that "mixers" ruined the breed in 1974, forgetting to mention what happened in Minas Gerais way back before the 50's. Shortly I will provide statements of breeders with proper names, places, and dates. A half truth is misleading, and the author of this book seems to be an expert in misinformation. Perhaps the three trips she made to Brazil did not give her enough time to collect the whole story, especially about the "authentic Filas" from Minas Gerais. In her opinion, breeders from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states were leaders in miscegenation in the year 1974, forgetting that São Paulo is the home base of Cafib and the home of Parnapuan Kennel which she praises so much. Actually, she does not know anything about pedigrees, otherwise she would know that Camping dogs came directly from Samor and Parnapuan lines, starting with Fera do Parnapuan, a female from Pedrinho do Engenho Ranch (Minas Gerais). With no knowledge of what she is talking about, she places a picture of Antares do Camping on page 199 with the text: "Exemplar que muestra la influencia del Mastim Napolitano!"
Where could she get the idea that the traditional Sampaio Moreira family or the owner of Parnapuan Kennel would breed Filas with Neapolitan Mastiffs? Certainly this supposed mix was not introduced in the last twenty-four years that I have been preserving the breed with a line breeding technique which has resulted in Camping Kennel producing champions of the breed since 1977. Selecting Filas has always been my passion, and I only exported the best to the United States, including two Brazilian champions coming directly from Brazil. They were Ch. Artemis do Igarapaua and Ch. Aretuza do Tibaita (both certified OFA Good). In order to preserve only sound Filas, I was the first Fila breeder in Brazil to x-ray my stock in 1983 to avoid the plague of hip dysplasia. Cafib people never did it. They just did not care and the results of their omission have brought losses to the German breeders who imported Fazenda da Carolina dysplasic dogs. Here in the States the same happened with Fazenda da Carolina and Três Curumins imports.
Going back to page 199, one can see that the name of the owner of Antares is omitted in her publication. The current owner and the former owner, in whose home the picture was taken, never gave authorization to Mrs. van Damme to publish that picture. Interesting is to note that on page 209 the author does not mention the evident influence of Great Danes in dogs coming from Minas Gerais. Some exports of these dogs were made in the 50's, when the standard of the breed had been already written, with the help of the expert who sold them. So, Dr. Santos Cruz knew how to recognize a pure Fila at that date, though he declared later on that he did not. Three men were selected to write the first Fila Brasileiro standard, because of their knowledge of the breed, and Dr. Paulo Santos Cruz was one of them. He used to fly to Minas Gerais and bring dogs in his small airplane to sell them in his hometown of Santos through ads in local newspapers. At least, this part of history was told in Mrs. van Damme's book. Farther on page 301 the author writes about the "bad quality of American Filas" which she never observed. Americans have the most sophisticated canine institutions in the world, and they do their homework before getting into the breed. American Fila breeders know about the importance of genetics and of reading pedigrees. They know about the gene B that always existed in the English Mastiff, ancient Bulldog, and Bloodhound. It cannot just vanish from the Fila Brasileiro, as Cafibians would like it to happen. They are aware that "mixers" always existed around the world, in Europe, the United States, or Minas Gerais, even before 1974, and that puppy mills are a spawning ground of fraudulent pedigrees. Who is naive? Americans know when their dogs measure up to the official FCI standard or not. Knowledgeable judges coming from Brazil for the FBA Fall Circuits were surprised at the high quality of the American Filas. They observed dogs larger and heavier due to the special food and supplements that Americans give to their dogs. No wonder American Filas won BOB in World Championships in Switzerland, 2nd place in Argentina, BOB in Hungary, 3rdand 4th placements in Mexico. Obviously Cafib has no place in America because this is a country where the black color is very popular. The American passion for the Fila is equal to the passion of the Brazilians for their national breed, with the main difference being that most Americans keep their Filas inside their homes and treat them as if they were their own children. With few exceptions most breeders own only a few Filas like myself. Currently I have just eight Filas, Saci being the oldest one. They are selected Filas, as I would not keep trash after breeding for over 24 consecutive years and having champions every year.
Antares do Camping is a product of Saci do Camping and Basra da Fazenda do Indomito, both hip dysplasia free, and OFA certified, both with excellent sharp temperament. Antares is aggressive when it comes to protecting his family or territory.
Here are some of the characteristics for those who do not know the differences between a Neapolitan Mastiff and a Fila Brasileiro ( a.k.a. Brazilian Mastiff ):
- MASTINO NAPOLITANO TRAITS
Head: massive, with a flat, short skull, blocky
Proportion: muzzle 1/3 the length of skull, with a stop
Parallel longitudinal axis of skull and muzzle
Color of nose: in accordance with coat, black or brown
Color of eyes: hazel, may vary with coat color
Eye lids: pigmentation is black, blue, or brown depending of coat color
Dewlap: begins at lower jaw and reaches near midpoint of neck
Skull: abundant wrinkles and folds
Ears: highly set above zygomatic arch; triangular shaped
Chest: descending below the elbows
Croup: top line straight with elevated withers
Movement: slow, like a bear
Colors: may be black, blue, gray, mahogany, and brindle
White: allowed on chest and tips of toes
Disqualifications: total discoloration of the nose. Nasal bridge decidedly arched or hollowed. Wall eyes. Discoloration of the eyelids. Cross - eyes. Lack of dewlap. Extensive white coat or white on the face.
Disqualifications: height at shoulders more than 30 inches or less than 23 inches
- FILA BRASILEIRO TRAITS
large, heavy, massive; resembles a trapezoid
1/1 ratio or slightly shorter muzzle without stop
divergent upper longitudinal axis skull
nose always black
dark chestnut to yellow - according to coat color
medium to large size, almond shaped
black; may be drooping due to profusion of skin
throat is furnished with a pronounced dewlap; folds may proceed to chest and abdomen
wrinkles on skull only when dog is at attention
large, pendant, thick, V shaped; rounded tip and level with eyes
Broad chest and descending to level of elbow
croup higher than withers
great agility; Pace (Camel's pace) is a must; Trot very powerful; Gallop with great speed
all solid colors, exception being disqualifying ones (white, mouse gray, patched, dappled, black and tan, blue) Brindles have a basic color, stripes either of less intensity or very strong
allowed on feet, chest, and tip of tail; not desirable on other parts of the body
Disqualifications: please look at the 13 disqualifications as listed in the official FCI Standard
Disqualifications: height - Dogs under 23.5 inches at withers. Bitches under 23.5 inches at withers.
As you can see, Antares conforms perfectly with the Fila Brasileiro official standard of the breed, including the very sharp and protective temperament. Remember the Ninth Commandment: "Thou shall not bear false witness against thy neighbor". This is the reason I did not point my finger at any possible "mixers", as the author wants me to do, as written on page 300 of her book. If there were "mixers" in Sao Paulo and Rio, what about the "mixers" from Minas Gerais? Fila breeders in Minas Gerais were the very first ones to breed Filas with hound dogs, Boxers, and Great Danes. But Cafib people insist in accusing only breeders from Sao Paulo and Rio. There has never been an iron curtain separating one state from another, nor fences around the ranches in Brazil. The Filas would cross freely with other breeds that existed on the ranches, and even with wild dogs. This shows how strong the basic characteristics of the Fila Brasileiro are. The breed survived constant crossings during 300 or 400 years. I have been selecting the so called "pure and authentic Filas", as the author likes to say, for over 24 consecutive years, all in accordance with the official standard of the breed. Nevertheless, I would not be surprised if in some litter a puppy shows up with a bulldog tail or with an undershot bite. These may be the ancestors' genes popping out (atavism), just like the gene B for the black color. I can observe the black color in pedigrees, going back to l946, with initial registrations from Filas brought from Minas Gerais. The black list Mrs. van Damme published, the same one from l979, is a joke. It lists Nubia de Samor, an excellent Fila in all senses. Her pedigree shows that she is half Samor and half Parnapuan, coming directly from Uri and Ela de Parnapuan. My first stud was the incredible, most decorated Fila of his time, Gr. Intl. Ch., South Am. Ch., National Ranking Winner in 1980, Orixa do Kirongozi. Dr. Paulo Santos Cruz himself judged Orixa three times and three times gave him Best of Breed. Some time later he called him a "mongrel". I judged Orixa myself once and also awarded him Best of Breed. He had no faults, plus a terrific movement, and a sharp temperament, but very well controlled. Nevertheless, some blind Cafibians placed him in that destructive black list. No one cares about the Ninth Commandment. Who is going to believe Cafibians after that? It is right to preserve the breed but not to drag to gas chambers excellent Filas based on suppositions. Fanatics never prevail and Cafib lies in a coma in Brazil. When Mrs. van Damme states on page l47 that "fuera del standard del fila puro están" and gives a long list, in which are included dogs like Cacibe dos Pampas (Trinity) and Araribóia, who actually are the ancestors of Boa Sorte dogs, she is spiting on her own plate. I cannot imagine why she uses dogs who have only two generations in their pedigrees. How can she accuse anyone if some of her dogs have only a Secondary Registration which unfortunately is allowed by CBKC? This Cafibian paranoia about dark brindles and black Filas is based on false information. They always existed in Minas Gerais and other states of Brazil. In accordance with Enio Monte and Prof. do Valle, who gathered statements from reliable breeders, in the 50's there was a ranch in Minas Gerais called Morro Grande, located in Varginha. The ranch was owned by Coronel Antonio Mariano dos Reis. Besides fawns and brindles, Mr. Reis also had a whole line of black Filas. The Reis family, together with José Gomes de Oliveira, were the greatest Fila breeders during the 40's and 50's in Minas Gerais. Renato Ribeiro Reis started to breed Filas in l948. He used to tell that the Fila that most impressed him was Nero, a black Fila from Morro Grande ranch.
Still in the book of Prof. Procópio do Valle and Mr. Enio Monte, we read that José Gomes de Oliveira, from Varginha, MG, was the breeder that furnished the greatest quantity of Filas to São Paulo and Belo Horizonte. His dogs were yellow and brindles, were large, with heavy heads, lots of dewlaps, and excellent temperament, though some of them showed a lot of influence of Great Danes.
José Rezende Paiva was the breeder who preserved the last bloodlines of Reis and José Gomes de Oliveira's Filas. As he was in need of cattle drovers, and he found the Filas too heavy for the work, he crossed his stock with "German Boxers", and declared that he was pleased with the new product. Another breeder from the 50's was Pedro Ribeiro Junqueira de Souza, of Fazenda do Engenho, in Silvestre Ferraz, currently Carmo de Minas and São Lourenço. He started to breed Filas in1920 with Filas brought from Cristina, near Itajubá, by his brother-in-law. He selected two different lines: one dark brindle, which sometimes produced gray and blue colors of medium size, very strong with massive heads and lots of dewlaps. The other one was a very large yellow dog with plenty of dewlaps. From this yellow color line, Dr. Paulo Santos Cruz got a female registered in 1958 under the name of Fera do Parnapuan (BKC register No. 16785) which was bred to the famous Tamoyo de Parnapuan brought from Conselheiro Lafayete. This led to the birth on April 23, 1959 of one of the best Parnapuan litters due to their uniformity, size, and beauty, according to Ms. Antonieta Santos Cruz. In this litter was the famous Orixá de Parnapuan, very heavy, weighing 94 kg (188 lbs.) and standing 79 cm (31 inches). There were nine other siblings, among them the black Fila Ogum de Parnapuan, who was kept by Dr. Santos Cruz for reproduction. Unfortunately this dog died at an early age. By the way, as I have already mentioned, Fera de Parnapuan is one of Camping dogs ancestors.
Another well-known breeder having Filas from the São Francisco valley was João Accioli of Tapiocanga Kennel (1949). It has been recorded that his family, Martins Soares, owned Filas since the end of 1800 in Neópolis, at the Fazenda Varzea Nova and Engenho Cadoz. They were called "cabeçudos" at that time. Later on, the family and dogs moved to the state of Goiás. Mr. Accioli's theory is that the "cabeçudos" were introduced by the legendary "Bandeirantes" (from São Paulo) in Goiás. "Bandeirantes" were explorers from São Paulo traveling through the wild country looking for slaves, gold, and diamonds, opening new frontiers, and starting settlements in inhabited areas of Brazil. They were in need of Filas during their long expeditions in order to catch Indians and to protect their mules from jaguars. Mr. Accioli tells that the Caixeta family was also a great source of Filas between Pires do Rio and Orizona. They were dark brindles in the majority. In 1923 Mr. Accioli saw yellow and black Filas on the ranch owned by the Gonçalves family. The dog that most impressed him was Chibante, a large dog with a very massive head, black with white owned by Mr. Manoel Gonçalves. He tells a story about Chibante bringing down a furious bull that refused to enter the corral threatening the ranchers' lives. Chibante was also the pack leader and chief guardian of the ranch. He marked his territory in a triangle; main house, yard, and corral. He would not follow the ranchers when traveling with cattle. This work was done by the "atravessados", mixed Filas and hound dogs, who were lighter and preferable for long distances. Mr. Accioli started his kennel with dogs from Santa Cruz, Goiás, and his best dog was Protetor de Tapiocanga, a brindle with white chest and green eyes, registered under KCP # 1585 on January 15, 1952. This dog had excellent litters, very aggressive, some of them black, with white chests, and brown patches. He closed his kennel in 1971.
Samor Line (1920) Mr. Gumercindo Saraiva, manager of the Sampaio Moreira ranch in Cajuru, the hinterland of São Paulo state, bought his first Filas from Meirelles family in Campinas, around 1920. They were dark brindle and also black. Later on he added to his stock Filas from Guaxupé and Varginha, South of Minas Gerais. His best dog was Thor de Samor, an excellent brindle, with a white collar, very strong, and a sharp temperament. Thor de Samor was the father of the famous solid coal black female Xita do ABC which became Penta Brazilian Champion (five times champion) owned by Samor Kennel. I was glad to read on page 280 that Mrs. van Damme considers Uruce de Kirimaua with a "pedigri impecable". Uruce is a daughter from Temporal de Kirimaua XAmazona de Água Boa. Temporal belonged to Prof. Procópio do Valle who bred excellent black Filas. Mr. Jaime Hernantes, owner of El Regato de Subiria Kennel in Spain, bought Uruce de Kirimaua and bred her to Cacique de Itavuvu (a son of the Gr. Int. Ch. National Ranking Winner in 1981 Alferes do Camping de Sorocaba) imported from Brazil by German judge Roswita Ketelhon, who kept two puppies from this litter. The male Aquila del Regato de Subiria won the World Championship of Dortmund in 1991. I wish to point out that Alferes do Camping de Sorocaba, sire of Caramuru de Itavuvu, had the following parents: Sire, Gr. Int. Ch. S. Am. Ch. and the National Ranking Winner in 1980, Orixá do Kirongosi, and Dam, Nubia de Samor, both listed in Cafib's black list.
On page 242 the author writes about a Fila called Xango dos Tres Curumins saying, "Maybe this male is the most important of all during the second half of the '90's: Xango dos Tres Curumins, son of another famous dog coming from Campinas: Itamar da Princesa do Oeste. Here we also find a line breeding based on Arace Poranga, who in turn is a son of Balaio da Fazenda Poco Vermelho. Xango has been the only pure male stud in the Europeancenter breeding for many years, until his death in 1998". It happens that Mrs. van Damme totally ignores that Balaio da Fazenda do Poco Vermelho was a son of Antar de Samor, son of the famous pitch black female, 5 times champion, Xita do ABC. Suddenly she claims that a dog coming from the blood of a pitch black female is "pure".
On page 266 one may read that D'artagnan da Zagaia Verde (sired by Gr. Int. Ch. National Ranking Winner in 1981 Alferes do Camping de Sorocaba X Agata da Lagoa do Jaburu) was the first Fila to be introduced in France by Mrs. Ledroux, who also introduced the Zagaia Verde bloodline in Spain. French judge Mr. Christian Delmas imported Estrela de Tamuana (Destemido do Camping X Tunisia do Rodrigues) born in 1988. Estrela became a champion in France. Fripon da Zagaia Verde, a very important reproducer in Spain, comes from Apache do Planalto Central whose parents were Impala II do ABC and Uganda do Kirongosi. If Mrs. van Damme could spend some more time in Rio de Janeiro looking at pedigrees, she would find out many other "authentic" Cafib approved Filas came out of dogs mentioned in her black list. Cacibe dos Pampas (Trinity) shows up in a good part of Boa Sorte Kennel pedigrees. Ch. Elo da Boa Sorte comes from Orixa II do ABC. Hur dos Pampas, Bororo do ABC, Impala do ABC, and Rubi do ABC are also listed. Other so called "pure Cafib Filas" as Castor de Tamakavi, was the result of the breeding of Jacu do ABC X Conchita do Itacolomi, having Apache de Sta. Olimpia, Guaira das Sete Barras (this female bred by João Batista Gomes, Sete Barras Kennel), Parrudo do Guarany, and Fronteira do ABC in his pedigree. Apache de Sta Olimpia shows up in both Cafib and CBKC bloodlines such as Jirua de Muqui and Boa Sorte Kennels. Together with Duna, a black bitch, he produced Pemba do Kirongosi. We see over and over again ABC bloodline mixed in Cafibians' pedigrees, but Mrs. van Damme seems not to be aware of this fact. She also seems to ignore the fact that Mr. Peltier de Queiroz was the owner of a dog called Dumas dos Pampas, son of Araribóia, and that Mr. Queiroz used Dumas dos Pampas in his kennel called Cafibra. It was here that the dog Idi Amin Dada da Cafibra, grandson of Araribóia was produced. Curiously these dogs, Dumas dos Pampas and Amim Dada da Cafibra (both of Mr. Queiroz), did not enter in the Cafib black list. Looking at the pedigree of Itamar da Princesa d'Oeste (father of Nagan do Amparo) one will find the famous Balaio da Fazenda Poço Vermelho, son of Antar de Samor who was a son of the legendary solid coal black female Xita do ABC, five times National Champion in Brazil. Mrs. van Damme seems to ignore again the pedigrees and ancestors of her kennel Los Tres Naranjos, Acaboclado, São Fila Kennel, and others in Spain that used and still continue to use descendants of Nagan do Amparo, Castor de Tamakavi, and Boa Sorte dogs. The same occurs in Germany with Três Curumins and Fazenda Carolina Kennels, both having the same bloodline of Castor de Tamakavi, Balaio da Fazenda Poço Vermelho, Antar de Samor, and Xita do ABC.
ABC Line (1906) This certainly was one of the most important lines in the Fila Brasileiro history. ABC is responsible for very famous champions not only in Brazil but also in Europe and the United States. The Monte family started their kennel in 1906 with dogs brought from ranchers of Sorocaba, São Paulo state. In 1920 they acquired and brought to Ipiranga district, where they had their textile industry, a large black Fila with white on the chest to be the guardian of their property. In 1934 they brought in yellow and brindle Filas. In 1939 they started a new line of yellow dogs without black mask, short and wide, with visible influence of Boxers and Bulldogs. Not satisfied with this line and with the help of the Fila breeder Mr. Lemos de Franca, they acquired a pair (Sansão and Dalila) from São João da Gloria, close to Passos do Sul in Minas Gerais. They were yellow, medium sized, with black masks, massive heads, and good angulation, Later on he still added to his kennel, dogs coming from José Alencar dos Reis, Fazenda Morro Grande, and from José Gomes de Oliveira, all from Minas Gerais. In those farms there were many Fox Hounds, and he noted that some of the dogs brought from Minas Gerais presented the influence of hounds, with white chests and long muzzles. Only through the years he succeeded in fixing a better type, more on the Mastiff side, eliminating small heads and patched dogs. The most important blood lines from his kennel were:
A) Orixá de Parnapuan (1959) came from Conselheiro Lafaiate and Carmo de Minas. Orixa had an excellent stable temperament. He was the pillar of ABC kennel. His best offspring was Bororó do ABC (1974), excellent reproducer, who imprinted the massive head, lots of dewlaps, and excellent temperament in his descendants. Bororó was half Mandaqui line.
B) Lambaré do Guaçu de Parnapuan - This dog's height was 80 cm. (31.50 inches) and was long and somewhat leggy. Mr. Monte used this dog though he was not very satisfied with the temperament of some of his offspring. This dog was the only remainder of Parnapuan Kennel after a leptospirosis plague decimated Dr. Paulo Santos Cruz's kennel. He had to start from scratch with dark brindle females given by Dr. Gregori Warchawchic and a male nicknamed Acarajé, from Fazenda do Engenho, Minas Gerais, registered under the name of Tigre de Araruama. His offsprings transmitted a lot of white.
C) Jaca de Itapecerica - This line also transmitted a lot of white, therefore the dog was given to Mr. Mirtho Amaral. From his descendants came the famous Guaçu do Cruzeiro do Sul, dark brindle, almost black (grandfather of the Gr. Ch. Delicado da Fazenda Poço Vermelho). Guapo do Cruzeiro do Sul was white with brindle patches, owned by Mr. Osny Morais Pinto and Luiz Bartuneck. Both dogs were produced by a small brindle bitch, with some Boxer influence which came from Guaxupé, Minas Gerais. Albatroz do ABC, also white with brindle patches, one of the most aggressive Filas ever known, was used by Dr. Antenor Lara Campos, from Km 26, Estrada do Eldorado, Ilha do Sabiá Kennel. Mr. Lara Campos told Mr. Enio Monte that his grandfather Joaquim Pizza, had Filas in 1910 as guardians of his property. His father also had Filas in Fazenda da Garça, originated from Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo. They were strong, wide, with heavy heads, yellow or brindles with a black mask, and some of them had a blaze. Lara Campos started his own kennel in 1940 in Haras Riachuelo in Cotia, São Paulo, and registered his kennel in 1958 under the name Ilha do Sabiá to where he moved and had over 100 Filas. His best female was Brahma do ABC. Another very nice champion owned by Marilia Barroso Pentagna was Elo da Boa Sorte, coming out from Orixa II do ABC, having Boróró do ABC and Impala do ABC as his great-grandparents, besides Rubi do ABC and Araribóia on the mother's side. It is ridiculous to say that only Cafib dogs are pure, as they come from the same old ABC breeding stock. Anyone having a collection of old pedigrees can verify it.
Cruzeiro do Sul Kennel (1966) - Mr. Morais Pinto started it with a female brought from Guaxupé, Minas Gerais, called Guaíra (with initial registration BKC/KCP-22668). She was brindle, small, but strong. Together with Juca de Itapecirica, she produced the famous Guaçu do Cruzeiro do Sul (BKC/KCP-23054), 70 cm in height (27.559 in.) and weighing 73 kg (160.9358 lbs.). From this line descended the National Champion Hudson of Bras Dog, who shows up in Orca, Xavante, Baiana, Vereda, Juriti, Hunno, Fumaça, and Aroeira do Boa Sorte pedigrees. Besides this, the pedigree of Raio de Paraibuna, (breeder is Cel. Arthur José Walter Verlangieri, owner of Paraibuna Kennel in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, founder of CMCFB (Clube Mineiro dos Criadores de Fila Brasileiro), shows Hudson of Bras Dog (Paulista line) a sire of Raio, Rás, Rainha, Riga, Recruta, and Reiuna de Paraibuna. Paraibuna Kennel was a traditional "mineiro kennel" located in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, who extensively used "Paulista" lines from Bras Dog, Cruzeiro do Sul, Guaporé-Açu, and Itacolomi kennels.
On page 189 under the title "Colores permitidas por el standard de la FCI", Mrs. van Damme includes the gray colors (ceniza claro, ceniza prateado), when actually in other languages, "ash", "gray", "cinza", this color is not permitted. Maybe there has been confusion with the colors "champagne" and "vinegar" which are permitted under the classification of fawn, not gray. Also, Mrs. van Damme continuously keeps repeating that black or dark brindles are not permitted by Cafib. She should keep repeating that black and dark brindles are permitted by the official FCI standard. Brindles have a basic color with the stripes either of less intensity or very dominant stripes. When you have a black dog with only one yellow stripe, he is considered a dark brindle, not a solid black one. On page 139 the author writes: "La Confederação Brasil Kennel Club no se preocupaba de limpiar su propio establo, al contrario, seguia con los ataques a los "disidentes" del Cafib". I have to say that "the stable" where Mr. Paulo Roberto Godinho, who wrote the prologue of Mrs. van Damme's book replete with Cafib propaganda, is licensed as a judge and he should look at the regulations that suspended Judge Christopher Habig from judging in Brazil. No CBKC/FCI judge is allowed to promote a dissident club, and Mr. Godinho is openly a declared Cafib follower. "The stable" has a disciplinary and ethical council that will take care of Mr. Godinho soon.